Contents of N1/2023

all contents

Contents of 1' 2023

CORPORATE FINANCE

Financial and economic security of small business entities: essence, interrelation, methodological approaches to assessment
Filobokova L.Yu., Doctor of Economics, Professor, Department of Economic Expertise and Financial Monitoring, MIREA Russian Technological University, e-mail: filobokova@list.ru
SPIN-code: 6895-328; Author ID: 461842; Scopus ID: 57190126440; ID : 461842; ORCID: 0000-0003-4542-3835
Nyarginen V.A., Senior Lecturer, Department of Economic Expertise and Financial Monitoring, MIREA Russian Technological University, e-mail: nyarginen2014@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 3156-8440; Author ID: 1050148; ID : 1050148; ORCID: 0000-0001-5722-5508

Annotation. The article presents the categorical essence of the financial and economic security of small businesses, their relationship and interdependence, determining factors. For the purposes of identifying the type (kind) of financial security of a small enterprise, methodological support for the assessment is proposed and justified, based on informal approaches and expert assessments using criteria indicators that display financial potential, financial stability, net cash flow and financial policy. The article presents the interim results of the study, which defend the author’s hypothesis about the divisibility of both economic and financial security, their recognition as a state that has a certain reserve to counter negative factors, about the need to forecast it for a period not exceeding 12 months due to the high degree susceptibility to change due to increased risks throughout the life cycle of small businesses.
Keywords: financial security is a local component of economic security; methodology for calculating and measuring financial security, types (kinds) of financial security of small enterprises.

References
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2. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossijskoj Federacii ot 13.05.2017 208 O Strategii ekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti Rossijskoj Federacii na period do 2030 goda [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_216629/ (data obrashcheniya: 08.11.2022).
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4. Sajbel’ N.Yu., Sovmiz N.M. Perspektivy razvitiya innovacionnogo predprinimatel’stva: monografiya Ekonomika i upravlenie: teoriya, metodologiya, praktika. Penza: Nauka i prosveshchenie, 2018. S. 614.
5. Karanina E.V. Finansovaya bezopasnost’ (na urovne gosudarstva, regiona, organizacii, lichnosti): monografiya. Kirov: FGBOU VO VyatGU, 2015. 239 s.
6. Filobokova L.Yu. Osobennosti metodologii finansovogo menedzhmenta v predprinimatel’stve // Finansovye menedzhment. 2018. 4. S. 23.
7. Van Horn Dzh.K. Osnovy upravleniya finansami. M.: Finansy i statistika, 2005. 800 s.
8. Mezhdunarodnyj standart finansovoj otchetnosti (IAS) 7 Otchet o dvizhenii denezhnyh sredstv [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_193533/ (data obrashcheniya: 08.11.2022).

Formation of the capital structure of the largest mining company pjsc severstal
Gubanov R.S., PhD in economics, senior researcher Center for Industry Economics of the Federal State Budgetary Institution Research Financial Institute of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, e-mail: gubanof@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 8820-6634; Author ID: 518833; ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0003-1675-8150

Annotation. The article discusses the features of building the organizational link of the management structure of the largest mining and metallurgical company in Russia Public Joint Stock Company (PJSC Severstal). Based on the logistic analysis, the key directions of the movement of production resources of PJSC Severstal in the chain of material flows are identified. Based on the results of diagnostics of the most important economic indicators of PJSC Severstal for 20212022. it is concluded that the analyzed company functions as a highly efficient vertically integrated complex carrying out mining processes and steel production. A diagram of the sales structure of PJSC Severstal products was constructed, which allowed the author to identify bottlenecks in the formation of the export component of the added value of steel production. The analysis of the composition of the share capital of the organization under study and the dynamics of the debt lever in the capital structure of PJSC Severstal allowed us to identify priority areas for optimizing the company’s capital. The author gives recommendations on the balance of the system of integrated performance indicators: diversification of the sales portfolio of steel and coking, thermal coal; optimization of the debt burden; profitability and capital turnover; profitability of securities.
Keywords: capital, structure, company, mining, industry, financial policy, debt leverage, debt policy.

References
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5. Struktura kompanii Severstal’ [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: severstal.com/rus/about/structure (data obrashcheniya: 27.12.2022).
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Acupuncture economics of the enterprise
Zarubinsky V.M., Head and specialist in financial analysis of enterprises, Konus Consulting Firm, Lugansk, e-mail: 2box1940@mail.ru, konus-l@mail.ru

Annotation. The fact of substitution of concepts taking place in the economy is demonstrated. This fact is demonstrated by the example of the most informative indicators, which should reflect the various results of the application of existing economic methods in the organization of financial and economic management of the enterprise.
Keywords: statistical model, adaptation model, fixed costs, variable costs, direct costs, overhead costs, break-even point, liquidity ratio, financial cycle, gross profit ratio.

References
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INVESTMENTS AND BUSINESS

Typology of economic security as an economic category
Levkina E.V., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Applied Economics, Far Eastern Federal University, e-mail: a553330@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 3607-2397; Author ID: 723305; Researcher ID: N-7317-2017; ORCID: 0000-0001-7764-251; Scopus ID: 57200571457
Lyalina Zh.I., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Finance, Far Eastern Federal University, e-mail: lyalina.zhi@dvfu.ru
SPIN-code: 7934-5386; Author ID: 643411; ORCID: 0000-0003-2002-2402

Annotation. The current global economic situation forces the economic entities of Russia to constantly change, to look for new ways to reduce economic threats. Under the conditions of a total economic blockade by the West, the rapid withdrawal of business from the country and the difficult financial situation, the nationalized enterprises are literally forced to drastically adapt their functioning strategy. In such difficult conditions, the dependence of the economic security of enterprises on politics, both within the country and on the world stage, is clearly seen. In this regard, the relevance of the study of economic security is increasing precisely by the levels of the economic system, the dependence and degree of influence of each level on each other. The article presents the author’s approach to the grouping of classification features of economic security with an emphasis on the levels of the economy. The author’s approach is based on the systematization of existing views on the classification of economic security as an economic category, and the formalization of the sign according to the level of management of the economic system.
Keywords: security, economic security, management, risks, typology, classification feature, meso-level.

References
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Development of the concept of business ecosystems
Borisova O.V., PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance, Faculty of Economics and Business, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation, -mail: OLVBorisova@fa.ru
SPIN-code: 5297-3667; ORCID: 0000-0002-7889-2745; Researcher ID: AAW-9161-2020; Scopus ID: 57191410077

Annotation. In the article, the author considers the concepts of ecosystems that are actively developing all over the world. As a result of the study, their varieties were identified, the interpretation of the term “business ecosystem” and its taxonomy were clarified, directions for further development were identified, and goals were clarified. The author’s proposals develop the traditional concept of business ecosystems, detailing its classification features and clarifying the criteria for comparison with other ecosystems, which makes it possible to determine their significant differences.
Keywords: business ecosystem, entrepreneurial ecosystem, innovation ecosystem, business model, financial efficiency of the business ecosystem.

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Investment project profitable house
Zhukova O.V., Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department, Head of the Department of Management and Economics of the Sports Industry named after V.V. Kuzin Russian University of Sports (GTSOLIFK); Lilac Boulevard, 4, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: zhkova.olga@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 6761-1840; Author ID: 809821; Scopus ID: 57203824133; ORCID 0000-0002-7821-8873

Annotation.he author proposed to develop commercial projects of hired (profitable) houses in Russia with the participation of a state corporation, so the purchase of real estate on the spot market will allow launching an institutionalization mechanism to reduce the market price of commercial leases.
Keywords: rent, rental house, tenement house, ZPIFN, state corporation.

References
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Efficiency of use of fixed assets of the region
Magomedov A.M., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Economics, State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education Dagestan State University of National Economy, Professor of the Department of Applied Informatics, Dagestan State University, Makhachkala, Russian Federation, e-mail: ali1955@mail.ru
Author ID: 373146; SPIN-code: 3729-2074; ORCID: 000-003-0762-0045

Annotation. The state of fixed assets determines the development potential of a business entity. Their level of depreciation can threaten economic security. In this regard, it is necessary to monitor the state and efficiency of the use of fixed assets, which is based on scientifically based economic and statistical tools. The paper analyzes the possibility of using well-known indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of the use of fixed assets of the organization at the level of the regional economy. The methodological approaches for calculating various coefficients for evaluating the effectiveness of the use of fixed assets of the region’s economy are specified. The main problems of the development of fixed assets of the economy of the subjects of the North Caucasus Federal District have been studied. Tendencies of structural changes in fixed assets by types of activity are revealed. New indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of the use of fixed assets are proposed. The analysis of the effectiveness of the use of fixed assets of the region according to the proposed new indicators was carried out.
Keywords: fixed assets, region, NCFD, efficiency of use, capital return, depreciation and renewal.

References
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2. Cypin A.P., Popov V.V. Statisticheskij analiz osnovnyh fondov Rossii: nalichie, sostoyanie, effektivnost’ ispol’zovaniya // Azimut nauchnyh issledovanij: ekonomika i upravlenie. 2017. T. 6. 3 (20). S. 355358.
3. Hutova L.A., Rasumov V.Sh. Metodika ocenki effektivnosti ispol’zovaniya analiza osnovnogo kapitala // Estestvenno-gumanitarnye issledovaniya. 2022. 41 (3). S. 367371.
4. Izmajlov M.K. Problemy postroeniya integral’nogo koefficienta effektivnosti ispol’zovaniya osnovnyh fondov promyshlennogo predpriyatiya // Vestnik Mosk. un-ta im. S.Yu. Vitte. Ser. 1: Ekonomika i upravlenie. 2022. 2 (41). S. 3340.
5. Shilova L.F., Skipin D.L., Kol’cova T.A. Ocenka ekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti strany v chasti osnovnyh fondov // Innovacionnoe razvitie ekonomiki. 2021. 4 (64). S. 310322.
6. Shahbanov R.B. Metodologicheskie voprosy ocenki osnovnyh sredstv dlya buhgalterskogo ucheta // Vestnik Dagest. gos. un-ta. Ser. 3: Obshchestvennye nauki. 2022. T. 37. 3. S. 1419.
7. Voronina V.M., Mihajlova O.P. Ekonomiko-statisticheskoe issledovanie osnovnyh fondov rossijskoj promyshlennosti kak osnova dlya prinyatiya upravlencheskih reshenij // Vestnik evrazijskoj nauki. 2022. T. 14. 2. S. 12.
8. Regiony Rossii. Social’no-ekonomicheskie pokazateli. 2022 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: rosstat.gov.ru/storage/mediabank/Region_Pokazateli_2022.rar (data obrashcheniya: 06.01.2023).
9. Bondarenko Yu.P. Vliyanie iznosa i obnovleniya osnovnyh fondov na tempy rosta proizvodstva valovoj produkcii sel’skogo hozyajstva Rossii // Zakonomernosti razvitiya regional’nyh agroprodovol’stvennyh sistem. 2022. 1. S. 912.
10. Namyatova L.E. Fond amortizacii kak fundamental’nyj istochnik vosproizvodstva osnovnyh fondov // ETAP: ekonomicheskaya teoriya, analiz, praktika. 2019. 4. S. 3648.
11. Magomedov A.M. Investicii v osnovnoj kapital sel’skogo hozyajstva: problemy i puti effektivnogo ispol’zovaniya // Vestnik Dagest. gos. un-ta. Ser. 3: Obshchestvennye nauki. 2019. T. 34. 3. S. 6168.

 

CONTROL BY THE FINANCE OF BANKS AND INSURANCE COMPANIES

Problems of lending to the population by financial organizations in a rapidly changing economy
Burganov R.A., Doctor of economics, professor of the department of economics and organization of production, Kazan State Power Engineering University, e-mail: burganov-r@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 1143-2027; Author ID: 282224; ORCID: 0000-0002-9957-8472
Ryzhova E.A., Master student of the department of economics and organization of production, Kazan State Power Engineering University, -mail: katra808@mail.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the consideration of the role and features of lending to the population. It also determined the state of the lending market, highlighted the main problems (high interest rates, the behavior of the population in lending, low levels of financial literacy, etc.), proposed measures to improve the system of lending to the population, stated the role of process automation and access to a remote format with service to the population.
Keywords: consumer lending, financial institution, banking sector, interest rate, risks.

References
1. Federal’nyi zakon ot 21.12.2013 353-FZ O potrebitel’skom kredite (zaime) [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_155986/(data obrascheniya: 08.11.2022).
2. Nacional’noe byuro kreditnyh istorii [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: nbki.ru/company/news/(data obrascheniya: 08.11.2022).
3. Kurdina E.S. Problemy potrebitel’skogo kreditovaniya v RF // Elekt. nauch.-prakt. jurn. Sovremennye nauchnye issledovaniya i innovacii. 2022. 10.
4. Hasanova R.R., Burganov R.A. Finansovaya gramotnost’ naseleniya: sravnitel’nye dannye // Jurnal ekonomicheskih issledovanii. 2020. T. 6. 4. S. 4246.
5. RBK [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: rbc.ru/finances/11/10/2022/6343e5f89a79472c7d37b157 (data obrascheniya: 08.11.2022).
6. Analiticheskii centr NAFI [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: nafi.ru/analytics/finansovaya-gramotnost-rossiyan (data obrascheniya: 08.11.2022).
7. Oficial’nyi sait Banka Rossii [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: cbr.ru/statistics/idkp_br/(data obrascheniya: 08.11.2022).
8. Isaeva P.G., Gadashakaeva D.R. Analiz dinamiki i napravleniya sovershenstvovaniya vozvratnosti kredita // ANI: ekonomika i upravlenie. 2019. 3 (28). S. 291.

Improving scientific and methodological approaches to ssessing the risk of economic security of Uzbekistan banks
Abdullaev A.Ya., Doctor of economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Banking, Samarkand Institute of Economics and Service, Uzbekistan, e-mail: oltinbek60@gmail.com
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6649-2541; Researcher ID: RID21822

Annotation. The article deals with topical issues of improving scientific and methodological approaches to assessing the risk of economic security using economic and mathematical methods, methods of probability theory and mathematical statistics, as well as system analysis of banking management. An attempt to create a system of values for the coefficients of the logistic model for assessing the risk of the economic security of banks, as well as decision-making ranges in accordance with them, is analyzed.
The provisions of the methodological nature proposed in the article are aimed at ensuring the economic security of the functioning of banks in modern economic conditions. And also,based on an empirical study, proposals are put forward from the point of view of the existing form of banking services and the use of information technology in order to assess the risk of the economic security of the bank and optimize the structure of banking services.
Keywords: probability of a crisis situation, crisis process, risk forecasting, economic security, financial stability, logistics models, economic instability.

Development of financialcredit relations in the agrarian sector in Uzbekistan
Erkinkhojiev I.I., assistant of the Department of Economics, Tashkent, Tashkent State University of Economics, -mail: agrar.vuz@inbox.ru
SPIN-code: 9795-5870; ORCID: 0000-0001-8270-3348; Researcher ID: RID 31763; Author ID: 1165487

Annotation. In world practice, scientific research is carried out in order to improve the mechanism of financial support for agriculture by the state. In particular, in developed countries, the object of research is the bonification and subsidization of the difference between the interest rate on preferential loans issued to farmers and the interest rate on commercial loans at the expense of the state budget. From the very beginning, great importance has been attached to state financial support and regulation of agro-industrial production in foreign countries. State financial assistance and support have always been important levers of state financial policy in the agricultural sector. The reason for such serious attention to agricultural production in the world is the need for food security of the country and the uniqueness of agriculture, and the market mechanism for managing this feature is explained by the principle of full efficiency in agriculture, as in other sectors of the economy.
Keywords: financial security, bank lending, agricultural production, efficiency, agricultural sector of the economy.

References
1. Ukaz Prezidenta Respubliki Uzbekistan ot 28.01.2022 UP-60 O strategii razvitiya novogo Uzbekistana na 20222026 god [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: lex.uz/ru/docs/5841077 (data obraeniya: 01.10.2022).
2. Godovoy otchet sentralnogo banka Respubliki Uzbekistan za 2020 god [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: cbu.uz/upload/medialibrary/ee6/Godovoy-otchet.pdf
3. Strategiya razvitiya Agrobanka na 20212024 gg. [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: file:///C:/Users/Admin/Downloads/62b5579d5ddb0.pdf
4. Ergashov E.I. Razvitiye otrasli sadovodstva i vinogradarstva na osnove ustoychivogo finansovogo obespecheniya: avtoref. dis. ... d-ra ekon. nauk. Tashkent: Institut finansov, 2020. 26 s. [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: tfi.uz/uz/page/avtoreferat-2020
5. Xolmurotov S.F. Metod optimalnogo regulirovaniya razvitiya selskoxzyaystvennogo proizvodstva (na primere Xorezmskoy oblasti): avtoref. dis. ... kand. ekon. nauk. Tashkent: Institut finansov, 2020. 26 s. [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: tfi.uz/uz/page/avtoreferat-2020
6. Imamov R.N. Sovershenstvovaniye sistem finansovoy podderjki selskogo xozyaystva gosudarstvom: avtoref. dis. ... kand. ekon. nauk. Tashkent: Institut finansov, 2020. 26 s. [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: tfi.uz/uz/page/avtoreferat-2020
7. Erkinxojiyev I.I. Ekonomicheskiye osnov agrarnogo sektora Respubliki Uzbekistan//Agropromishlenny kompleks: problem i perspektivi razvitiya: mater. Vseros.nauch.-prakt. konf. (21 apr. 2021 g.). Blagoveshensk: Izd-vo Dalnevostochniy GAU, 2021. S. 304309 [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=46591797
8. Saidov M.X., Ashurmetova N.A. Sovremenne tendensii razvitiya agrologistiki v Uzbekistane. Ural. gos. agrar. un-t // Sb. mater. Mejdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. Ot inersii k razvitiyu: nauchno-innovatsionnoye obespecheniye APK, 2020. S. 116117 [Elektronniy resurs]. URL: elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43784303

 

FINANCIAL MARKET

Principles and instruments of monetary policy in conditions of economic instability
Zeleneva E.S., assistant of the Department of Banking and Monetary Regulation Faculty of Finance, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: ESZeleneva@fa.ru
SPIN-code: 9599-5021; Author ID: 933993; Scopus ID: 57222073277; ORCID: 0000-0003-3660-6779
Likhopoy A.O., student of the Faculty of Economics and Business, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: alya.likhopoy@mail.ru

The article was prepared based on the results of research carried out at the expense of budgetary funds under the state assignment of the Financial University.

Annotation. In conditions of economic and geopolitical instability, it is important for the state to maintain the stability of the financial system against external shocks. One of the sustainability factors is price stability, which is the target of the monetary policy of the Bank of Russia. The article discusses the features of compliance with the principles of monetary policy in Russia during the crisis period, proves the need for a combination of traditional monetary instruments and an unconventional tool communication.
Keywords: central bank, monetary policy, inflation, price stability, communication, exchange rate, key rate.

References
1. Giblova N.M. Vliyanie denezhno-kreditnoj politiki na ekonomicheskij rost v usloviyah nestabil’nosti // Bankovskoe delo. 2018. 2. S. 1420.
2. Osnovnye napravleniya edinoj gosudarstvennoj denezhno-kreditnoj politiki na 2023 god i period 2024 i 2025 godov [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: cbr.ru/Content/Document/File/139691/on_2023 (20242025).pdf (data obrashcheniya: 09.11.2022).
3. Indeksy potrebitel’skih cen na tovary i uslugi / Federal’naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoj statistiki: oficial’nyj sajt [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: gks.ru/dbscripts/cbsd_internal/DBInet.cgi?pl=1902001 (data obrashcheniya: 09.11.2022).
4. Zeleneva E.S. Kommunikacionnaya politika Banka Rossii v usloviyah politicheskoj nestabil’nosti // Bankovskie uslugi. 2022. 2. S. 1216.
5. Inflyacionnye ozhidaniya/Bank Rossii: oficial’nyj sajt [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: cbr.ru/statistics/ddkp/inflationary_expectations/(data obrashcheniya: 09.11.2022).
6. Abramova M.A., Dubova S.E., Ershov M.V., Zaharova O.V., Zvonova E.A., Zeleneva E.S., Maslennikov V.V., Pishchik V.Ya. Ob osnovnyh napravleniyah edinoj gosudarstvennoj denezhno-kreditnoj politiki na 2022 god i period 2023 i 2024 godov: mnenie ekspertov Finansovogo universiteta // Ekonomika. Nalogi. Pravo. 2022. 15 (1). S. 622.
7. Zeleneva E.S. Ocenka transparentnosti sovremennoj denezhno-kreditnoj politiki//Bankovskie uslugi. 2021. 6. S. 1725.



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