Contents of N6/2022

all contents

Contents of 6' 2022

CORPORATE FINANCE

Development of a financial model for the non-current assets’ effective management an industrial company in the conditions of production technical re-equipment
Murav’eva N.N., Ph. D. in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Volzhsky branch of Volgograd State University, e-mail: nataljamur75@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 7346-8663; Author ID: 730 645; Researcher ID: O-2383-2017; ORCID: 0000-0003-3392-8465

Annotation. In this article, typical problems of non-current assets’ effective management as part of general financial management at enterprises focused on modernization and updating of their production base were identified. Step-by-step elaboration of a special financial model, the use of which will solve the identified problems, is considered on the example of the industrial company JSC EPK Volzhsky. The implementation of this model is designed to ensure the rationalization of the asset structure, the structure of current assets and its relationship with short-term sources of financing, the rationalization of financing of non-current assets and property in general with a focus on achieving the criteria values of key performance indicators.
Keywords: industrial companies, non-current assets, basic production assets, financial model, asset structure optimization, criteria performance indicators.

References
1. Fursov V.A., Solomatina A.A. Upravlenie vneoborotnymi aktivami predpriyatiya // Kant. 2012. 3 (6). S. 3942.
2. Smolenceva E.V. Amortizacionnaya politika kak etap upravleniya vneoborotnymi aktivami predpriyatiya // Aktual’nye problemy gumanitarnyh i estestvennyh nauk. 2014. 10. S. 209212.
3. Nakonechnaya T.V., Aleeva D.V. Upravlenie vneoborotnymi aktivami organizacii // Sovremennye tekhnologii upravleniya. 2022. 2 (98).
4. Abelova L.A., Zaharkina R.A., Kitajkina N.N., Markova A.A. Finansovaya strategiya upravleniya vneoborotnymi aktivami organizacii//Vestnik Altajskoj akademii ekonomiki i prava. 2022. 5. S. 313321.
5. Klimova N.P., Dergun L.V. Ocenka effektivnosti finansovogo menedzhmenta osnovnogo kapitala // Trendy i upravlenie. 2016. 2. S. 186193.
6. Charaeva M.V., Korinevskij D.V. Upravlenie vneoborotnymi operacionnymi aktivami predpriyatiya // Aktual’nye problemy gumanitarnyh i estestvennyh nauk. 2014. 121. S. 224228
7. Murav’eva N.N., Kalmykova A.Yu. Ocenka effektivnosti upravleniya vneoborotnymi aktivami v kommercheskih organizaciyah // Ekonomika i biznes: teoriya i praktika. 2018. 122. S. 3539.
8. Finansovaya (buhgalterskaya) otchetnost’ OAO EPK Volzhskij po dannym FNS i Rosstata [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: list-org.com/company/41781/report

Analysis of the influence of factors on the leverage of leveraged buyout transactions
Balakin I.A., postgraduate student, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Business Intelligence Department, Moscow, e-mail: ilya.balakin.96@bk.ru
SPIN-code: 6585-6449; Author ID: 1022771; ORCID: 0000-0002-8069-8167

Annotation. Based on the theories of capital structure, the article clarifies the factors that affect leverage in leveraged buyout (LBO) transactions and formulates hypotheses for the nature of their influence. To confirm the hypotheses, a correlation-regression analysis of the impact on the level of LBO financial leverage of such factors as free cash flow, effective tax rate, return on equity, upside potential, leverage to buyback and credit market conditions was carried out. The analysis showed a high level of impact on LBO leverage from changes in credit spreads and a low significance of the main classical determinants of the capital structure. Debt in LBO is primarily a source of value creation. The results of the study contribute to a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the level of leverage in the LBO, and are recommended for making capital structure decisions in leveraged buyout transactions.
Keywords: leverage, financial leverage, capital structure factors, leveraged buyout.

References
1. Kaplan S.N., Stromberg P. Leveraged Buyouts and Private Equity // the Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2009. Vol. 23. No. 1. Pp. 121146.
2. Kessel A. Der Leveraged Buyout in den USA und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland // Peter Lang International Academic Publishers [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: xzzijin.com/ view/title/41748 (data obrashcheniya: 17.01.2022).
3. Pignataro P. Financial modeling and valuation: a practical guide to investment banking and private equity. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2013 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: bennytannawi.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/paul-pignataro-financial-modeling-and-valuation_-a-practical-guide-to-investment-banking-and-private-equity-wiley-2013.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 16.06.2022).
4. Damodaran A. The Anatomy of an LBO: leverage, control, value there are three components // New York University stern School of Business. 22 Jul 2008/ 2020 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: people.stern.nyu.edu/adamodar/pdfiles/country/ LBO.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 16.03.2022).
5. De Pamphilis D.M. Mergers, Acquisitions, and other Restructuring activities. An Integrated Approach to Process, Tools, Cases, and Solutions / Donald M. DePamphilis 10th ed. Wiley, 2019. 564 p.
6. Jensen ., Meckling W. Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure. 2020 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: academia.edu/3094 6980/JENSEN_AND_MECKLING_A_Summary (data obrashcheniya: 17.01.2022).
7. Axelson U., Jenkinson T., Stromberg ., Weisbach .S. Borrow Cheap, Buy High? The Determinants of Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts // The Journal of Finance. December 2013. Vol. LXVIII. No. 6. P. 4778.
8. Jenkinson T., Stucke R. Who benefits from leverage in LBOs? // University of Oxford Said Business School, February 28, 2011. 2020 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: sbs.ox. ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-07/lbo-mechanics-new-watermark. pdf (data obrashcheniya: 07.02.2022).
9. Global Private Equity Report // Bain & Company. 2019. 2020 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: bain.com/contentassets/875a49e26e9c4775942ec5b86084df0a/bain_ report_private_equity_report_2019.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 17.01.2022).
10. Markova E.G. Osobennosti i perspektivy razvitiya sdelok finansiruemogo vykupa na rossijskom rynke / E.G. Markova // Finansovaya analitika: problemy i resheniya. 2016. 12. S. 58 64.
11. Colla P., Ippolito F., Wagner F.H. Leverage and Pricing of Debt in LBOs // Journal of Corporate Finnace, Forthcoming. 2020 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: academia.edu/954530/Leverage_and_Pricing_of_Debt_in_LBOs (data obrashcheniya: 03.02.2020).
12. Le Nadant A.-L., Perdreau F. Financial profile of leveraged buy-out targets: Some French evidence. Review of Accounting and Finance [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: halshs. archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00522624/document (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).
13. De Maeseneire W., Brinkhuis S. What drives leverage in leveraged buyouts? An analysis of European leveraged buyouts’ capital structure // Accounting & Finance, 52, 2012, pp. 155182.
14. Modigliani F., Miller M. The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance and the Theory of Investment // American Economic Review. 1958. Vol. 48(3). Pp. 4667.
15. Myers S.C. Capital structure. Journal of Economic Perspectives [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: edisciplinas.usp.br/pluginfile.php/5503605/mod_ resource/content/0/Myers%2C% 202001.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).
16. Fan J.P.H., Titman S., Twite G. An international comparison of capital structure and debt maturity choices [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/Fanetal2010.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).
17. Barclay M.J., Smith C.W. The capital structure puzzle: The evidence revisited // Journal of Applied Corporate Finance. 2005. Vol. 17. P. 817.
18. Demiroglu C., James C.M. The role of private equity group reputation in LBO financing [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.627.3540&rep=rep1&type=pdf (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).
19. Ivashina V., Kovner A. The private equity advantage: Leveraged buyout firms and relationship banking // The Review of Financial Studies. 2011. Vol. 24 (7). Pp. 24622498.
20. Bureau van Dijk: ofitsialnyi sait [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: bvdinfo.com (data obrashcheniya: 11.12.2021).
21. Mergermarket: ofitsialnyi sait [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: info.mergermarket.com (data obrashcheniya: 11.12.2021).
22. Biblioteka Beikera. Blumberg Tsentr [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: library.hbs.edu com (data obrashcheniya: 11.12.2021).
23. Compustathttp: ofitsialnyi sait [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: compustat.com com (data obrashcheniya: 11.12.2021).
24. Lehn K., Poulsen A. Free cash flow and stockholder gains in going private transactions // Journal of Finance. 1989. Vol. 44 (3). P. 771787.
25. ICE Benchmark Administration Limited: ofitsialnyi sait [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: theice.com (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).
26. Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED): ofitsialnyi sait [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: fred.stlouisfed.org/ (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).
27. Trading Economics. United Kingdom corporate tax rate [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/corporate-taxrate?fbclid=IwAR08fuAlcsOTiIcGYS_WS46p61KdlifFFA4m 8IaxAi44a9Mbus-k0sCK_LE (data obrashcheniya: 11.10.2022).

Development of a mechanism for process management of financial stability of commercial enterprises
Shavrina Yu.O., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Accounting, Analysis and Audit, Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russian Federation, e-mail: Shavrina_82@list.ru
SPIN-code: 2105-4087 orcid.org/0000-0002-0848-8229

Annotation. The article examines approaches to managing the financial stability of a commercial enterprise. The structure of the financial stability management mechanism of commercial enterprises, presented in the works of modern scientists, is studied and generalized. The structure of the financial stability management mechanism of a commercial enterprise based on a process approach is presented. Financial relations are identified, financial levers, financial instruments and information base are identified at the entrance to the business process, at the exit from it, during its execution, ensuring the management of the financial stability of a commercial enterprise.
Keywords: process management, management mechanism, financial stability, financial methods, financial levers.

References
1. Evseeva S.A. Analiz podhodov k opredeleniyu sushchnosti mekhanizma upravleniya // PSE. 2014. 2 (50). S. 3137.
2. Sharinova G.A. Finansovyj mekhanizm aktivnyj element v sisteme upravleniya finansami / G.A. SHarinova // Vestnik Kalmyc. un-ta. 2013. 1 (17). S. 9398.
3. Nikulina I.E. Sovremennyj mekhanizm finansovogo mendzhmenta: prosto o slozhnom / I.E. Nikulina, L.S. Grinkevich, I.V. Homenko // Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. 2016. 52. S. 395402.
4. Naimi S., Ivanovskaya A.V. Metody upravleniya finansovoj ustojchivost’yu kompanii dlya celej povysheniya effektivnosti biznesa // Elektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal Vektor ekonomiki. 2021. 3. Rezhim dostupa: vectoreconomy.ru/images/publications/2021/3/economicsmanagement/Naimi_Ivanovskaya.pdf
5. Korneeva I.V., Rusakova G.N. Upravlenie finansovoj ustojchivost’yu predpriyatiya real’nogo sektora ekonomiki // Upravlencheskie nauki. 2016. 4. S. 7984.
6. Dubonosova A.N. Sistema upravleniya finansovoj ustojchivost’yu kompanii // Spravochnik ekonomista. 2018. 5. S. 2439.
7. Kirov A.V. Informacionno-analiticheskaya sistema upravleniya finansovoj ustojchivost’yu firmy // Finansovaya analitika: problemy i resheniya. 2011. 27. S. 2328.
8. Repin V.V. Biznes-processy kompanii. Postroenie, analiz, reglamentaciya. M.: Izd-vo Standarty i kachestvo, 2007. 272 s.
9. Lucenko A.I. Sovremennye aspekty upravleniya biznes-processami predpriyatiya // Colloquium-journal. 2021. 21 (108). S. 4547.
10. Popov N.L. Sistema upravleniya biznes-processami // Izvestiya SPbGEU. 2015. 4. (94). S.100103.
11. Dentovskaya Yu.S. Reinzhiniring biznes-processov / Yu.S. Dentovskaya // Vestnik nauki i obrazovaniya. 2016. 2 (14). S. 3948.
12. Kochetkov D.A. Integraciya novoj sistemy kontrolya i upravleniya proektami i processami predpriyatiya // Statistika i ekonomika. 2014. 4. S. 7779.
13. Bozhko V.P., Balychev S.Yu., Bat’kovskij A.M., Bat’kovskij M.A. Upravlenie finansovoj ustojchivost’yu predpriyatij // Statistika i ekonomika. 2013. 4. S. 3641.
14. Grebenshchikova E.V. Finansovaya ustojchivost’ promyshlennogo predpriyatiya i sposoby ee obespecheniya: dis. kand. ekon. nauk / E.V. Grebenshchikova. M., 2007. 186 s.
15. Ioda Yu.V., Shishkina Yu.G. Mekhanizmy upravleniya i obespecheniya finansovoj ustojchivosti predpriyatiya // Social’no-ekonomicheskie yavleniya i processy . 2017. 6. S. 9398.
16. Serebryakova N.A., Grishchenko N.V. Sovershenstvovanie upravleniya likvidnost’yu i platezhesposobnost’yu predpriyatiya // Vestnik VGUIT. 2017. 2 (72). S. 346353.
17. Polyakova V.A., Ioda E.V. Praktika ispol’zovaniya finansovogo analiza dlya ocenki rezul’tatov finansovoj deyatel’nosti predpriyatiya // Social’no-ekonomicheskie yavleniya i processy . 2017. 6. S. 251258.
18. Grankin V.F., Marchenkova I.N. Finansovaya ustojchivost’ predpriyatij APK: ocenka i upravlenie // Vestnik Kursk. gos. s.-h. akad. 2015. 9. S. 3438.
19. Lipchiu K.I. Prioritetnye napravleniya po povysheniyu effektivnosti ispol’zovaniya finansovyh resursov sel’skohozyajstvennyh organizacij // Nauchnyj zhurnal KubGAU. 2013. 87. S. 498513.
20. Gukova A.V., Anikina I.D., Kirov A.V. Mekhanizm upravleniya finansovoj ustojchivost’yu firmy v kontekste resursno-faktornogo podhoda // Finansovyj zhurnal. 2013. 2. S. 7584.

 

INVESTMENTS AND BUSINESS

Analysis of regional disparities: the central federal district of Russian Federation
Dubovik M.V., doctor of economic science, assistant professor, professor of Economic theory department, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia, -mail: mvdubovik@gmail.com
WoS Researcher ID: V-5683-2017; Scopus Author ID: 57193315226; ORCID: 0000-0001-8843-1398; SPIN-code: 4262-9854; Author ID: 315229
Dmitriev S.G., candidate of economic science, researcher, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Bryansk branch, Bryansk, Russia, -mail: sergey.g.dmitrieff@gmail.com
WoS Researcher ID: ABB-6440-2021; Scopus Author ID: 57093263700; ORCID: 0000-0003-2621-5870; SPIN-code: 8521-1940; Author ID: 750562

Annotation. This paper provides the results of the analysis of disparities in the regional development of the subjects of the federation belonging to the Central Federal District of Russia, as well as to the study of inequality in the gross regional product in the named area during 20132019. Inequality analysis was carried out using the coefficients of Gini, Atkinson, Theil, etc., as well as the Herfindahl-Hirschman and Williamson indices. We have analyzed the processes of concentration and dispersion of indicators of the gross regional product and gross regional product per capita (using the Lorenz curve), as well as the presence of convergence or divergence within the specified federal district by the ordinary least squares method and the nonlinear least squares method. We have established that during the observed period there are no statistically significant changes in the mentioned indicators of inequality. With regard to regional convergence, the regression model of which is first brought to the attention of researchers, we are forced to state the low rates of this process, the preservation of which will not allow us to overcome disproportions in the development of the regions of the Central Federal District in the foreseeable future (according to our calculations, it will take from 334 to 346 years to overcome the 50% gap in the distribution of the gross regional product between the regions of the Central Federal District).
Keywords: Regional Disparities, Convergence, Divergence, Inequality.

References
1. Urban Planning: Nobel laureate Paul Romer examines how cities drive economic growth (2021) New York University School of Law. Available at: law.nyu.edu/news/ideas/Paul-romer-nobel-cities-growth (Accessed: 30 December 2021).
2. Fleisher B., Li H., Zhao M.Q. (2010). Human capital, economic growth, and regional inequality in China. Journal of Development Economics 92, 21523. DOI:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2009.01.01
3. Qiao-Li X., Yue W., Wei-Xing Z. (2021). Regional Economic Convergence in China: A Comparative Study of Nighttime Light and GDP. Frontiers in Physics. Vol. 9, 2021. frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphy.2021.525162 DOI=10.3389/fphy.2021.525162, ISSN=2296424X.
4. Skare M., Gil-Alana L.A., Claudio-Quiroga G., & Pržiklas Družeta R. (2021). Income inequality in China 19522017: persistence and main determinants. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12 (4), 863888. doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.028
5. Zheng L., Shepherd D., Batuo M.E. (2021). Variations in the determinants of regional development disparities in rural China. Journal of Rural Studies. Vol. 82, 2021, 2936. ISSN 0743-0167. doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.08.011
6. Palma N., Reis J. (2019). From Convergence to Divergence: Portuguese Economic Growth, 15271850. Journal of Economic History 79, 477506. DOI:10.1017/S0022050719000056
7. Bakucs Z. and Fertő I. (2019). Convergence or Divergence? Analysis of Regional Development Convergence in Hungary. Eastern European Countryside. Vol. 25 (Iss. 1), 121143. doi.org/10.12775/eec.2019.005
8. Mitrică B., Damian N., Grigorescu I., Mocanu I., Dumitraşcu M., Persu M. (2021). Out-migration and social and technological marginalization in Romania. Regional disparities, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2021, 121370. ISSN 00401625. doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.121370
9. Eldeeb I.M.I., Haris B.A., Muda B.M. (2021). The Conceptual Framework of Economic Cooperation and Integration between OIC: Empirical Evidence on Effects of Trade on Cooperation and Integration. Journal of Business and Economic Review, 6 (3), 190202. doi.org/10.35609/jber.2021.6.3 (3)
10. Mendez C. & Santos-Marquez F. (2021). Regional convergence and spatial dependence across subnational regions of ASEAN: Evidence from satellite nighttime light data. Regional Science Policy & Practice, 13 (6), 1750 1777. doi.org/10.1111/rsp3.12335
11. Fukuda S., Okumura K. (2020). Regional convergence under declining population: The case of Japan. Japan and the World Economy, Vol. 55, 2020, 101023, ISSN 09221425. doi.org/10.1016/j.japwor.2020.101023
12. Adhikari B. & Dhital S. (2021). Decentralization and regional convergence: Evidence from night-time lights data. Economic Inquiry, 59: 10661088. doi.org/10.1111/ecin.12967
13. Portnov B.A., Felsenstein D. (2005). Measures of Regional Inequality for Small Countries. In: Felsenstein D., Portnov B. (eds), Regional Disparities in Small Countries, 4762.
14. Gluschenko K. (2018). Measuring regional inequality: to weight or not to weight? Spatial Economic Analysis, 13 [1], 3659.
15. Liu S., Wan Y., Zhang A. (2020). Does China’s high-speed rail development lead to regional disparities? A network perspective, Transportation Research Part A. Policy and Practice. Vol. 138, 2020, 299321, ISSN 09658564. doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2020.06.010
16. Sánchez Carrera E.J., Rombaldoni R., Pozzi R. (2021). Socioeconomic inequalities in Europe. Economic Analysis and Policy. Vol. 71, 2021, 307320. ISSN 0313-5926. doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2021.05.007
17. Achten S., Lessmann C. (2020). Spatial inequality, geography and economic activity. World Development. Vol. 136, 2020, 105114, ISSN 0305750X. doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105114
18. Fischer M.M., Huber F., Pfarrhofer M. (2021). The regional transmission of uncertainty shocks on income inequality in the United States. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. Vol. 183, 2021, 887900, ISSN 0167-2681. doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2019.03.004
19. Shalak A.V. (2021). The role of transport communications in ensuring political and economic security: the unlearned lessons of history. Journal of economic history & history of economics. 2021.Vol. 22. No.1, 142162. DOI: 10.17150/23082488.2021.22 (1).142162
20. Fageda X., Olivieri C. (2019). Transport infrastructure and regional convergence: A spatial panel data approach. Pap Reg Sci. 2019; 98: 16091631. doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12433
21. Kanat A. (2021). Regional convergence and structural transformation in a resource-dependent country. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. Vol. 59, 2021, 548557, ISSN 0954-349X. doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2021.10.004
22. Acemoglu D., Autor D. (2011). Chapter 12 Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings. Handbook of Labor Economics, Editor (s): David Card, Orley Ashenfelter, Elsevier. Vol. 4. Part B, 2011, 10431171. ISSN 1573-4463, ISBN 9780444534521. doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7218 (11)02410-5
23. Wieland T. (2019). REAT: A Regional Economic Analysis Toolbox for R. Region. Vol. 6. No. 3, 2019, R1-R57. DOI: 10.18335/region.v6i3.267
24. Official Statistics (2021). Available at: eng.rosstat.gov.ru/folder/11335 (Accessed: 26 December 2021).
25. Banerjee A. & Duflo E. (2019). Good Economics for Hard Times. Public Affairs, New York. ISBN 978-1-5417-6287-9.

Effective corporate governance system as a tool for attracting foreign direct investment in the high-tech sector of the economy: indian experience
Vashchenko T.V., Ph. D. in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Financial and Investment Management, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, e-mail: t.v.vashchenko@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 2233-4182; AuthorID: 504624; ORCID: 0000-0003-0249-3307; Researcher ID: C-3953-2017

The article is based on the results of the research carried out by the Financial University under the state assignment.

Annotation. Attracting foreign direct investment into the economy, especially in the hightech sector, which is the basis of competitiveness, innovative growth and development of any country, is one of the priority tasks, the solution of which is impossible without combining the efforts of the management of companies and the state on the most important aspects of this problem. One of the most significant constraining factors. The experience of foreign countries that have achieved significant success in this area, to which India fully belongs, must necessarily be used in Russia, taking into account national specifics and current development priorities. In the article, the author identifies the most meaningful and significant elements of the corporate control system used in Indian companies to reduce corporate risks, improve the efficiency of corporate governance and attract significant amounts of capital to the company using equity financing instruments.
Keywords: corporate governance, corporate control, corporate risks, foreign direct investment, stock market, agency problem.

References
1. Avetisyan A.G. Investicionnaya privlekatelnost strany: analiz osnovnyh faktorov//Finansy: teoriya i praktika. 2020. 24 (4). S. 5874.
2. Kosorukova O.D. Analyz vliyaniya sushchestvennyh faktorov na uroven kapitalizacii rossiiskih publichnyh akcionernyh obshchestv // Problemy teorii i praktiki upravleniya. 2021. 6. S. 122141.
3. Voskanyan R.O. Znachenie agentskoi problemy v kompaniyah sektora vysokih tehnologii//Finansovii biznes. 2022. 7 (229). S. 7174.
4. Statisticheskaya baza dannyh po fondovym birzgam [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: statista.com/statistics/270126/largest-stock-exchange-operators-by-market-capitalization-of-listed-companies/(data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
5. Analiticheskaya baza dannyh po fondovym birzgam [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: ru.investing.com/indices/s-p-cnx-nifty-historical-data (data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
6. Ritu Singh, Sheetal Mohata, Imapact of Professional Ethics on workplace spirituality with special reference to IT Industry. Aunsandhan the research repository of GIBS, 2018, 1 (1), p. 9397.
7. Oficialnyi cait Soveta po cennym bumagam i birzgam Indii (SEBI) [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: sebi.gov.in/legal/circulars/aug-2003/corporate-governance-in-listed-companies-clause-49-of-the-listing-agreement_15948.html (data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
8. Oficialnyi cait Ministerstva po korporativnym delam Indii [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: mca.gov.in/Ministry/pdf/CompaniesAct2013.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
9. Oficialnyi cait Fonda akcionernogo kapitala Indii (India Brand Equity Foundation) [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: ibef.org/economy/foreign-direct-investment (data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
10. Oficialnyi cait Departamenta OON po ekonomicheskim i socialnym voprosam [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: desapublications.un.org/publications/global-population-growth-and-sustainable-development (data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
11. Statisticheskaya baza dannyh po mirovoi ekonomike [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: statista.com/statistics/268173/countries-with-the-largest-gross-domestic-product-gdp/(data obrashcheniya: 20.10.2022).
12. Kosorukova O.D., Abalakin .. K voprosu o pryamyh inostrannyh investiciyah Rossii: problem i resheniya//Problemy teorii i praktiki upravleniya. 2020. 2. S. 119130.

Analysis of the state and development trends of residential real estate market segments
Zhukova O.V., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Management and Economics of the Sports Industry named after V.V. Kuzin, Russian University of Sports (GCOLIFK), e-mail: zhkova.olga@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 6761-1840; ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7821-8873; Author ID: 809821; Scopus ID: 57203824133

Annotation. The topic of the article was determined by the consideration of methods for determining housing affordability indices (coefficients) and a comparative analysis of solving problems with housing affordability in Russia, the UK and the USA, as well as infrastructural aspects of financial market development.
Keywords: financial market, mortgage, consumer housing cooperation, housing affordability.

References
1. Konstitutsiia Rossiiskoi Federatsii, st. 40, p. 2 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: zakonrf.info/konstitucia/40/(data obrashcheniia: 20.09.2022).
2. Smit A. Issledovanie o prirode i prichinakh bogatstva narodov. M.: Eksmo, 2016. S. 443.
3. Postanovlenie Pravitelstva Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 30.12.2017 1710 Ob utverzhdenii gosudarstvennoi programmy Rossiiskoi Federatsii Obespechenie dostupnym i komfortnym zhilem i kommunalnymi uslugami grazhdan Rossiiskoi Federatsii (s izm. na 20 iiunia 2022 g.) [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: docs.cntd.ru/document/556184998 (data obrashcheniia: 20.09.2022).
4. Zhukova O.V. Analiz resheniia problemy dostupnogo zhilia v Rossii i v Velikobritanii //Analiticheskii zhurnal Risk: resursy, informatsiia, snabzhenie, konkurentsiia. 2021. 3. S. 2430.
5. Federalnyi zakon ot 16.07.1998 102-FZ (red. ot 14.07.2022) Ob ipoteke (zaloge nedvizhimosti). Statia 31 Strakhovanie zalozhennogo imushchestva. Strakhovanie otvetstvennosti zaemshchika i strakhovanie finansovogo riska kreditora [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: zakonrf.info/zakon-ob-ipoteke/31/(data obrashcheniia: 20.09.2022).
6. FCA (Financial Conduct Authority) [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: fca.org.uk (data obrashcheniia: 20.09.2022).
7. Gold practice and guidance, Reports and summaries / 29 November 2009. Retrived & December 2011.
8. Housing affordability in England and Wales: 2021 Office for National Statistics [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: ons.gov.uk
9. Palii V.M. Problema traktovki poniatiia dostupnost zhilia // Voprosy ekonomiki. 2011. 26 (458). S. 7074.
10. Federal’nyj zakon ot 02.08.2019 259-FZ (red. ot 20.07.2020) O privlechenii investicij s ispol’zovaniem investicionnyh platform i o vnesenii izmenenij v otdel’nye zakonodatel’nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: base.garant.ru/72362156/(data obrashcheniya: 29.09.2022).
11. Operatory investicionnyh platform, 2021. Central’nyj bank Rossijskoj Federacii [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: cbr.ru/admissionfinmarket/navigator/oip/

 

CONTROL BY THE FINANCE OF BANKS AND INSURANCE COMPANIES

Development of small banks in russia through financial inclusiveness tools
Shaker I.E., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Banking and Monetary Regulation, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, e-mail: ish7@bk.ru
Author ID: 691609; SPIN-code: 9188-7657; ORCID: 0000-0002-6297-6725; Researcher ID; Web of Science: -2914-2022; Scopus Author ID: 57205260800
Semenkova E.V., Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, e-mail: vadimovna1231955@mail.ru
Author ID: 791843; SPIN-code: 5075-8410

Annotation. Based on the experience of small US banks, the article offers practical recommendations for using financial inclusiveness tools as a basis for the development of small Russian banks in the context of sustainable development, which determines the relevance of the study. The author considers the mechanism of financial inclusiveness as a set of principles, goals and tools necessary to solve the problem of competitiveness of small banks with large banks in the financial services market. The task was set for the practical use of financial inclusiveness tools by Russian small banks, such as: financial accessibility, identification, disruption, impactwashing, taxonomy in order to develop banking business in the context of the green agenda and the feasibility of its use in Russia.
It is concluded that the use of financial inclusiveness tools provides competitive advantages for the development of a product line of banking services for small banks. It helps to improve the quality of life of low-income segments of the population, is an important factor in the socio-economic development of society and is aimed at full access to a bank account, complete identification and study of behavioral patterns of the population, taxonomy and disruption of financial services.
Keywords: small banks, inclusive capitalism, financial inclusion, inclusiveness tools, identification, disruption, accessibility, impactwashing, taxonomy, sustainable development, quality of life growth.

References
1. Shaker I.E. Inkliuzivnost finansovogo i bankovskogo obsluzhivaniia naseleniia v kontekste ustoichivogo razvitiia kak osnovnogo sotsialnogo trenda: Rossiiskii opyt // Bankovskie uslugi. 2022. 1. S. 2831. DOI: 10.36992/2075-1915_2022_1_28
2. Ezhekvartalnyi bankovskii profil [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: fdic.gov/analysis/quarterly-banking-profile/(data obrashcheniia: 14.07.2022).
3. Larionova I.V. Kak sokhranit doverie naseleniia k uchastnikam finansovogo rynka // Sberegatelnoe delo za rubezhom. 2020. 2. S. 310. DOI: 10.36992/75692_2020_2_3
4. Badalov L.A. Bankovskii mir na poroge Bazelia-V: veroiatnost stsenariia // Finansy, dengi, investitsii. 2020. 3. S. 1420. DOI: 10.36992/2222-0917_2020_3_14
5. Indikatory finansovoi dostupnosti za 2021 god (po rezultatam zamera 2022 goda): analiticheskaia spravka; Strategiia povysheniia dostupnosti finansovykh uslug v Rossiiskoi Federatsii; Finansovaia dostupnost / Bank Rossii [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: cbr.ru/develop/development_affor/(data obrashcheniia 14.07.2022).
6. Finansovaia inkliuziia / Financial inclusion, tematicheskaia stranitsa Vsemirnogo Banka, kontekst initsiativ v oblasti finansovoi dostupnosti: ofitsialnyi sait. URL: ttps://worldbank.org/en/topic/nancialinclusion/overview (data obrashcheniia: 05.06.2022).
7. Finansovaia osoznannost: vliianie kognitivnykh iskazhenii na resheniia uchastnikov rynka finansovykh uslug // Skolkovo Moscow School of Management: ofitsialnyi sait. URL: skolkovo.ru/researches/finansovaya-osoznannost-vliyanie-kognitivnyh-iskazhenij-na-resheniya-uchastnikov-rynka-finansovyh-uslug/(data obrashcheniia: 05.06.2022).
8. Shaker I.E. Kontsept finansovaia inkliuzivnost: instrumentalnyi analiz v paradigme ustoichivogo razvitiia / I.E. Shaker // Bankovskie uslugi. 2022. 6. S. 2933.
9. Mezhdunarodnaia organizatsiia Alians za finansovuiu inkliuziiu (Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI)), 2019 g. Ofitsialnyi sait. URL: afi-global.org/publications/2019-afi-annual-report/ (data obrashcheniia: 05.06.2022).
10. Morozova O.A. Problemy issledovaniia tsifrovykh platform i sviazannykh s nimi ekosistem kak kompleksnogo fenomena sovremennoi ekonomiki // Finansy, dengi, investitsii. 2021. 2. S. 3037. DOI: 10.36992/2222-0917_2021_2_30
11. Zapros informatsii ob ustanovlenii standartov i dobrovolnoi sertifikatsii modelei i storonnikh postavshchikov tekhnologii i drugikh uslug, 85 Fed. Reg. 44890 (24 iiulia 2020 g.), dostupno po adresu: govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2020-07-24/pdf/2020-16058.pdf (data obrashcheniia: 14.07.2022).
12. FDIC obieiavliaet konkurs na modernizatsiiu bankovskoi finansovoi otchetnosti (30 iiunia 2020 g.), dostupno po ssylke fdic.gov/news/press-releases/2020/pr20079.html (data obrashcheniia: 05.06.2022).
13. FDIC, FDITECH zapuskaet tekhnicheskii sprint dlia okhvata bolshego chisla liudei, ne polzuiushchikhsia bankovskimi uslugami, FIL-43-2021 (16 iiunia 2021 g.), dostupno po adresu fdic.gov/news/financial-institution-letters/2021/fil21043. HTML).
14. FDIC ishchet finansovogo konsultanta dlia sozdaniia novogo tselenapravlennogo bankovskogo fonda dlia podderzhki zastrakhovannykh FDIC minoritarnykh bankov i finansovykh institutov razvitiia soobshchestv (18 noiabria 2020 g.), dostupno po adresu fdic.gov/novosti/press-relizy/2020/pr20125.html (data obrashcheniia: 14.07. 2022).
15. Vasileva Iu.A. Draivery rosta kachestva bankovskikh produktov i uslug // Bankovskie uslugi. 2020. 3. C. 1528. DOI: 10.36992/2075-1915_2020_3_15
16. Kasianov R. Iu. Tsifrovizatsiia: servis robot-sovetnik v privat-bankinge // Bankovskie uslugi. 2020. 4. C. 2530. DOI: 10.36992/2075-1915_2020_4_25
17. Shaker I.E. Paradoks berezhlivosti kak otvet na institutsionalnye vyzovy v epokhu nestabilnosti // Sberegatelnoe delo za rubezhom. 2020. 1. S. 817. DOI: 10.36992/75692_2020_1_8

Blockchain technology: basic taxonomy and some problems of growth of financial risks in the banking sector
Borisova O.V., PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance, Faculty of Economics and Business, Financial University, Moscow, Russian Federation, -mail: OLVBorisova@fa.ru
SPIN-code: 5297-3667; ORCID: 0000-0002-7889-2745; ResearcherID: AAW-9161-2020; Scopus ID: 57191410077
Shavalieva S.M., 3nd year student, Financial University, Moscow, Russian Federation, -mail: 202629@edu.fa.ru

Annotation. The article summarizes the blockchain taxonomy, identifies a number of problems in its implementation and use in the banking sector related to scalability, security, privacy, technology costs, data leaks, and hacker attacks. A classification of problems has been proposed and methods such as SegWit, Proof Of Stake and segmentation have been identified that are appropriate to use to eliminate them. To increase the number of blockchain solutions, it is proposed to create a platform for innovative solutions, which will contribute to the development of the entire banking sector.
Keywords: banking sector, blockchain, blockchain solutions, smart contracts, transactions, blockchain taxonomy.

References
1. Nurmuhamedov R.K., Stepanov P.D., Novikova T.R. Tekhnologiya blokchejn: sushchnost’, vidy, ispol’zovanie v rossijskoj praktike // Den’gi i kredit. 2017. 12. S. 101103.
2. Zagajnova M. Preimushchestva blokchejna dlya bankov. 2018 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: ffc.media/ru/real-blockchain/the-advantages-of-blockchain-for-banks/(data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
3. Klassifikaciya blokchejnov [Elektronnyj resurs]. Bitbon System Social Network. URL: bitbon.space/ru/knowledge-base/distributed-ledger-technologies-block-chain/technological-aspects-of-blockchain/classification-of-blockchains (data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
4. Blokchejn i ego sobrat’ya. Kratkaya klassifikaciya. 21 iyunya 2019 g. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: dzen.ru/media/id/5c6654ba9a88e300b003e636/blokchein-i-ego-sobratia-kratkaia-klassifikaciia-5ced3ae3c7fb4000af61524b (data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
5. Kokko L., Pinna A., Marchesi M. Blockchain banking: Cost savings due to blockchain technology // The Internet of the future. 2017. No. 9 (3). P. 25.
6. Chang V., Bodier P., Zhang H., Xu Q., Zhang J., Arami M. How blockchain can affect financial services: review, problems and recommendations of the interviewed experts // Technological Forecasting & Social Change. Available online 21.06.2020. P. 158.
7. Carter R. The Ultimate List of Blockchain Statistics. 2022 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: findstack.com/blockchain-statistics/(data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
8. Problemy blokchejna [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: tadviser.ru/index.php/%D0%A1%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D1%8F:%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%8B_%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%B9%D0%BD%D0%B (data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
9. Frankenfield J. Proof-of-Stake (PoS) [Elektronnyj resurs]. 2022. URL: investopedia.com/terms/p/proof-stake-pos.asp (data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
10. Frankenfield J. Sharding. 2021 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: investopedia.com/terms/s/sharding.asp (data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).
11. Blokchejn v bankinge: analiz cennosti tekhnologii dlya investicionnyh bankov [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: habr.com/ru/company/wirex/blog/400565/ (data obrashcheniya: 10.10.2022).

The current state of the banking system and trends in ensuring the economic security of commercial banks in Uzbekistan
Malikova D.M., independent researcher, senior lecturer, Samarkand Institute of economics and service, Uzbekistan, e-mail: dilrabo7malikova@gmail.com
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-0016-995X

Annotation. The economic security of the state directly depends on the stability of its banking sector. Ensuring the financial stability of commercial banks is a top priority task in the process of reforming the banking system of Uzbekistan. The paper presents an analysis of the current state of the country’s banking system, in particular, the article describes the dynamics of the main indicators of the activities of commercial banks. The paper also systematizes the main factors influencing the economic security of commercial banks and draws appropriate conclusions on the state of ensuring the economic security of domestic banks.
Keywords: banking sector, economic security, commercial bank, financial stability, prudential supervision.

References
1. Ukaz Prezidenta Respubliki Uzbekistan ot 12.05.2020 UP-5992 O Strategii reformirovaniya bankovskoj sistemy Respubliki Uzbekistan na 20202025 gody [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: lex.uz/ru/docs/4811037/(data obrashcheniya: 07.10.2022).
2. Ukaz Prezidenta Respubliki Uzbekistan ot 28.01.2022 UP-60 O Strategii razvitiya Novogo Uzbekistana na 20222026 gody [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: lex.uz/ru/docs/5841077/(data obrashcheniya: 12.10.2022).
3. Statisticheskij byulleten’ Central’nogo banka Respubliki Uzbekistan za 2021 g. [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: cbu.uz/ru/statistics/buleten/(data obrashcheniya: 21.10.2022).
4. Mel’nik D.Yu. Bazovye elementy i osnovnye sostavlyayushchie ekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti banka // Vestnik Evrazijskoj nauki. 2018. 4. T. 10. S. 18 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: esj.today/PDF/13ECVN418.pdf/(data obrashcheniya: 22.10.2022).
5. Kalinovskaya E.O. Ekonomicheskaya bezopasnost’ v bankovskoj sfere: ponyatie, sushchnost’ // Aktual’nye voprosy nalogooblozheniya, nalogovogo administrirovaniya i ekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti: sb. nauch. st. V Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf. Kursk, 2021. T. 2. S. 6973 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=47223238/(data obrashcheniya: 24.10.2022).
6. Zakon Respubliki Uzbekistan ot 05.11.2019 ZRU-580 O bankah i bankovskoj deyatel’nosti [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: lex.uz/ru/docs/4581971/ (data obrashcheniya: 12.10.2022).
7. Polozhenie ot 06.07.2015 2693 O trebovaniyah adekvatnosti kapitala kommercheskih bankov, p. 3435 [Elektronnyj resurs]. URL: lex.uz/ru/docs/2699540/(data obrashcheniya: 12.10.2022).

 

BOOKKEEPING AND REPORTING

The auditor identification of intra-corporate fraud risks: economic and psychological aspects
Altukhova N.V., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Certified Auditor, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Branch of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov in the city of Sevastopol, e-mail: nnaa1606@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 6617-0991; ORCID: 0000-0002-6558-6167; Author ID: 795589
Nalichaeva S.A., Candidate of Psychological Sciences, Deputy Director for Academic Affairs of the branch of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov in the city of Sevastopol, e-mail: espritsn@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 4583-2985; Author ID: 876411
Mogila N.A., chief specialist-expert of the contract and contract department of the Financial and Accounting Department of the Department of Administration of the Governor and the Government of the city of Sevastopol, e-mail: NikoAlex98@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 3838-2135; Author ID: 1010544

Annotation. The article proposes a three-level classification of intra-corporate fraud varieties and examples of motivation/opportunity/justification factors for these varieties. The characteristics of the psychological characteristics of the personality of a person prone to fraud are presented. Methods of psychological diagnostics are considered and psychodiagnostic methods are selected for assessing the psychological determinants of fraud and identifying a tendency to fraud. The paper presents the results of the analysis of theoretical approaches and empirical studies on the problem of identifying psychological factors of fraud propensity. Particular attention in the study is paid to the phenomena of moral normativity and moral reliability of a person, their formation and development, at the heart of fraud prevention.
Keywords: intracorporate fraud, fraud triangle, psychodiagnostic methods and techniques, individuality, narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, moral reliability.

References
1. Shitkova V.M. Problema postroeniya antikorrupcionnoj komplaens sistemy` mezhdunarodny`mi kompaniyami v Rossii//Estestvenno-gumanitarny`e issledovaniya. 2020. 29 (3). S. 406411.
2. Dronov R.V., Shunaev A.M., Nazarov P.V. Faktory`, determiniruyushhie korrupcionny`e otnosheniya na predpriyatiyax chastnogo sektora e`konomiki // Ucheny`e zapiski Mezhdunarodnogo bankovskogo instituta. 2020. 4 (34). S. 3551.
3. Nikulina-Semenova M.V. Temnaya triada [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: b17.ru/article/107264/ (data obrashcheniya: 05.07.2022).
4. Prasolov V.I. Vnedrenie risk-orientirovannoj modeli protivodejstviya korrupcii v rossijskix kompaniyax//Uspexi sovremennoj nauki. 2016. T. 1. 8. S. 2227.
5. Prasolov V.I. Osnovny`e napravleniya antikorrupcionnoj politiki sub``ekta e`konomicheskix otnoshenij // American Scientific Journal. 2016. 4. S. 1922.
6. Shuxman M.E`., Fokina A.A. Sushhnostnaya xarakteristika forenzik-audita //Sb. nauch. rabot serii Finansy`, uchet, audit. 2021. 2 (22). S. 222230.
7. Konovalova O.V., Ageeva L.S. Sushhnost` i soderzhanie yavleniya korporativnogo moshennichestva v deyatel`nosti rossijskix kompanij // E`konomika: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. 2020. T. 10. 81. S. 199208.
8. Misirov D.N., Davy`denko I.G. Vnutrikorporativny`j finansovy`j kontrol` kak instrument minimizacii riskov moshennichestva // E`konomika ustojchivogo razvitiya. 2019. 3 (39). S. 222228.
9. Cheremisina S.G., Primy`shev I.N., Primy`sheva E.N., Skaranik S.S. K voprosu o metodicheskix priemax diagnostiki personala predpriyatiya // Innovacionnoe razvitie e`konomiki. 2019. 1. (49). S. 242250.
10. Mezhdunarodny`j standart audita 240 Obyazannosti auditora v otnoshenii nedobrosovestny`x dejstvij pri provedenii audita finansovoj otchetnosti [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: minfin.gov.ru/ru/document/?id_4=116577-mezhdunarodnyi_standart_audita_240_obyazannosti_auditora_v_otnoshenii_nedobrosovestnykh_deistvii_pri_provedenii_audita_finansovoi_otchetnosti (data obrashcheniya: 07.07.2022).
11. Epstein B.J., Ramamoorti S. Today’s Fraud Risk Models Lack Personality // The CPA Journal. March. 2016 [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: cpajournal.com (data obrashcheniya: 01.07.2022).
12. Altuxova N.V., Mogila N.A. Risk moshennichestva v audiruemoj organizacii i auditorskie procedury` v otvet na ocenenny`j risk // Azimut nauchny`x issledovanij: e`konomika i upravlenie. 2018. T. 7. 1 (22). S. 1417.
13. Fighting fraud: A never-ending battle. PwC’s Global Economic Crime and Fraud Survey [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: pwc.com/gx/en/forensics/gecs-2020/pdf/global-economic-crime-and-fraud-survey-2020.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 10.09.2022).
14. Hobson J.L., Stern M.T. Zimbelman A.F. The Benefit of Mean Auditors: The Influence of Social Interaction and the Dark Triad on Unjustified Auditor Trust // Contemporary Accounting Research. 2020. No. 37. 2. Pp. 12171247.
15. Liew M.B.A. What Are the Dark Triad Traits and How to Spot Them in Someone You Know // Learning Mind. 2017. 10 [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: learning-mind.com (data obrashcheniya: 07.07.2022).
16. Shtern V. Differencial`naya psixologiya i ee metodologicheskie osnovaniya. M.: Nauka, 1998. 336 s.
17. Psixologiya truda, inzhenernaya psixologiya i e`rgonomika: uchebnik dlya akademicheskogo bakalavriata / pod red. E.A. Klimova, O.G. Noskovoj, G.N. Solncevoj. M.: Izd-vo Yurajt, 2015. 618 s.
18. Sobchik L.N. Standartizirovanny`j mnogofaktorny`j metod issledovaniya lichnosti SMIL. SPb.: Rech`, 2000. 219 s.
19. Merlin V.S. Ocherk integral`nogo issledovaniya individual`nosti. M.: Pedagogika, 1986. 253 s.
20. Fernxe`m A., Richards S.K. i Paulxus D.L. (2013). Temnaya triada lichnosti: obzor za 10 let. Soch. Chelovek. Compass 7, 199216. DOI: 10.1111/spc3.12018
21. Rauthmann J.F. The Dark Triad and Interpersonal Perception: Similarities and Differences in the Social Consequences of Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Psychopathy // Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2012. Vol. 3 (4). P. 487496.
22. Kohlberg Lawrence, T. Lickona, ed. Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach, Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research and Social Issues. Rinehart and Winston, 1973. Pp. 170205.
23. Strizhov E.Yu. Lichnost` moshennika: Nravstvenno-psixologicheskij analiz: monografiya. M.: YuNITI-DANA: Zakon i pravo, 2008. 374 s.



«» - «».